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Basic English Grammar -- Chapter 02 -- Singular and Plural nouns
Singular Noun Definition: When a noun means one only, it is said to be singular.
Examples: boy, girl, book, church, box
Plural Noun Definition: When a noun means more than one, it is said to be
plural. Examples: boys, girls, books, churches
The plural of nouns is usually formed by adding s to a singular noun.
Example: lamp, lamps; cat, cats; fork, forks; flower, flowers; pen, pens
Nouns ending in s, z, x, sh, and ch form the plural by adding es.
Example: moss, mosses buzz, buzzes box, boxes
dish, dishes church, churches
If you add s to such nouns as fox, bush, and bench, you will find that you cannot
pronounce them without making an additional syllable. This is why such nouns
form the plural by adding es.
Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant is formed into a plural by changing
y to ies. Examples: lady, ladies; city, cities; army, armies
Nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel form their plurals by adding s.
Example: boy, boys; day, days
Most nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant is formed into a plural by
adding es. Example: hero; heroes; grotto, grottoes
Some nouns ending in f or fe are made plural by changing f or fe to ves.
Example: beef, beeves; wife, wives