Hypersensitivity Type 1 Reactions Made Easy- Type 1 Allergic Reaction
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Hypersensitivity reactions (HR) are immune responses that are exaggerated or inappropriate against an antigen or allergen
Anaphylactic Responseis mediated by IgE antibodies that are produced by the immune system in response to environmental proteins (allergens) such as pollens, animal danders or dust mites. These antibodies (IgE) bind to mast cells and basophils, which contain histamine granules that are released in the reaction and cause inflammation. Type I hypersensitivity reactions can be seen in bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, food allergy, allergic conjunctivitis, and anaphylactic shock.
Allergic bronchial asthma is an atopic disease, characterized by bronchospasm. It may also be a chronic inflammatory disease. In its etiology, and environmental factors along with a genetic background play an important role. The diagnosis is dependent on history and examination. In allergic bronchial asthma, IgE is elevated, and sputum eosinophilia is common. Epidemiologically, a positive skin prick test or specific IgE are risk factors for asthma.
One must differentiate food allergy (IgE-mediated) from food intolerance that can be cause for a variety of etiology including malabsorption and celiac disease. It is more frequent in children as seen in cow's milk allergy. Food allergy symptoms mostly affect the respiratory tract, the skin, and the gut. Skin prick tests are helpful to test for food allergens that can trigger severe reactions, e.g., peanuts, eggs, fish, and milk.
Drugs may cause allergic reactions by any mechanism of hypersensitivity. For example, penicillin may cause anaphylaxis, which is IgE-mediated but must responses be trivial. Penicillin cross-reacts with other semisynthetic penicillins including monobactams and carbapenems and may also cross-react with other antibiotics such as cephalosporins.