Page Faults & Page Fault Handling in Operating Systems | Page Fault Numerical Example | Thrashing

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Published at : 15 Dec 2020
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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In this Operating systems - Memory Management video tutorial we will study and understand what is Page fault, how it happens and the entire process of Page Fault Handling in OS.
We will also understand what is Thrashing.
Page faults -
When a program tries to reference a page not currently present in RAM, the processor treats this invalid memory reference as a page fault and transfers control from the program to the operating system.
The operating system must:
1. Determine the location of the data on disk.
2. Obtain an empty page frame in RAM to use as a container for the data.
3. Load the requested data into the available page frame.
4. Update the page table to refer to the new page frame.
5. Return control to the program, transparently retrying the instruction that caused the page fault.

Thrashing -
After completing initialization, most programs operate on a small number of code and data pages compared to the total memory the program requires. The pages most frequently accessed are called the working set.
When the working set is a small percentage of the system's total number of pages, virtual memory systems work most efficiently and an insignificant amount of computing is spent resolving page faults. As the working set grows, resolving page faults remains manageable until the growth reaches a critical point. Then faults go up dramatically and the time spent resolving them overwhelms time spent on the computing the program was written to do. This condition is referred to as thrashing. Thrashing occurs on a program that works with huge data structures, as its large working set causes continual page faults that drastically slow down the system. Satisfying page faults may require freeing pages that will soon have to be re-read from disk.

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